Category: Ancient History Encyclopedia


WE’RE offering a scholarship to the USI UNESCO Chair Summer School in Indonesia to develop and promote sustainable tourism in World Heritage Sites. This scholarship will pay the full tuition fees to attend the event in Indonesia from 16-23 August 2020.

The deadline to apply is on the 29th of February, 2020. Please head to the link for more information:


ANDROMACHE is a Greek tragedy written by Euripides (c. 484- 407 BCE), one of only 19 plays (out of 92) to survive. The play is actually in two parts, and like SophoclesWomen of Trachis, it has no central character. The first part of the play deals with the plight of Andromache. Now the slave of Neoptolemus, the former wife of the Trojan prince Hector, she is threatened by Hermione, the young wife of her master. Together with her father, King Menelaus of Sparta, she threatens to kill Andromache and her young son.

Luckily, she and her son are saved by King Peleus, father of Achilles and grandfather of Neoptolemus. The second part is concerned with Hermione – the daughter of Menelaus and Helen – who fears the return of her husband from Delphi. He will most certainly kill her when he hears of her plan. Miraculously, Orestes, son of Agamemnon, arrives and saves the day with plans to kill her husband. The play ends with King Peleus, although grieving for his dead grandson, promised immortality by the goddess Thetis.

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THE First Labor Strike in History and the Bronze Age Collapse.

This video deals with the first recorded workers strike that took place in Ancient Egypt under Ramses III, this touches on a variety of issues and subjects such as the Bronze Age Collapse and the effect it had on the Egyptian population and economy after the invasions of the Sea Peoples.

WE’RE offering a scholarship to attend the Summer School 2020 of the UNESCO Chair in ICT to develop and promote sustainable tourism in World Heritage Sites. The event will take place in Indonesia from 16-23 August 2020.

Please head to the link for more information: 



MARCUS Vipsanius Agrippa (l. 64/62 – 12 BCE) was Augustus’ (r. 27 BCE – 14 CE) most trusted and unshakably loyal general and his right-hand man in the administration of the city of Rome. Although his name is forever connected with the first Roman emperor and is relegated to the backseat in terms of historical significance, he was one of the most skilled military commanders of Roman warfare, a talented engineer, architect, and administrator.

There is not a wealth of information on Agrippa and because he is inseparably linked with Augustus, Agrippa’s story will always be told side-by-side with Augustus’ (known as Octavian before 27 BCE). He was within a year in age with Octavian, and it is very likely that they were even schooled together and would remain very close throughout their adolescence. Nothing is known about the origin of Agrippa’s family. Agrippa’s gens name – which indicated your particular tribe or clan – Vipsanius was extremely rare, and even Agrippa wanted to cast it aside.

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A vision of the afterlife is articulated by every culture, ancient or modern, in an effort to answer the question of what happens after death, and this was as true for the ancient Persian view of the afterlife as for any other ancient civilization. Ancient Persia had the same interest in what happens after death as any culture in the present day and provided one of the most interesting, and compassionate, answers.

The human concern with mortality informs not only the scriptures of world religions but the greatest literary works. The Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh – considered the oldest epic tale in the world – is centered on finding meaning in life in the face of inevitable death and innumerable works since have explored the same problem.

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JERUSALEM is the capital of the modern nation of Israel and a major holy city for the three Western traditions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It sits on spurs of bedrock between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea area. To the north and west, it tapers off to the Jezreel Valley and the hills of the Galilee, while to the south lies the Judean desert. The city is surrounded by three steep ravines (to the east, south, and west). On the other side of the eastern ravine, across the Kidron valley, is the Mount of Olives.

Historically, Jerusalem was an urban center for approximately 5,000 years. Scholars debate the original meaning of the name (Sumerian “foundation” or Semitic “to found” or to “lay a cornerstone”). It could also derive from the name of the Canaanite god of dusk, Shalem, where the main consonants of s-l-m also denote the Hebrew (salam or shalom), which means “peace.” Ironically, the city has known very little peace over the centuries.

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