Even after Japan began its formal policy of isolationism in 1639, the Dutch continued to be allowed to trade through the port of Nagasaki. They were notably… pliable… traders. Basically, the Dutch would do whatever was needed to maintain good relations and keep trading flowing. For example:
“…In 1640 a Dutch trading party was allowed to stay [in Nagasaki] after the expulsion of the Spanish and Portuguese. The ‘Hollanders’ assured their hosts of the relative pliancy of their brand of Christianity, demonstrating their good Protestant faith by firing a few shells at the Japanese Catholics huddled in Hara Castle.”
Their actions meant that the Dutch had exclusive access to Nagasaki for over a century. Japan also kept trading relations open with their much closer neighbors the Ryūkyū Kingdom, Korea, and Russia through the ports of Satsuma, Tsushima and Matsumae (respectively).
Fighting a fire at City Hall at -2 F (-18 C). Leiden, Netherlands in 1929. Some equipment broke due to the freezing temperatures (you can see the water frozen on the ground) and the firefighters have frozen mustaches! Behind them is the mayor, watching them fight the blaze.
Waiting at the airport, Amsterdam, 1964. Photographed by Leonard Freed.
“Your child can smile, talk, or play and does not have to sit up or put on a pretty face.”
Algemeen Handelsblad, 12 April 1935
In April 1935, Polyfoto opened a shop in Amsterdam’s city centre. For 1 guilder, you could have a sheet made with 48 different portrait photos.
The Frank family went there to have their pictures taken. Photo sheets of all four family members have survived. Several photos were cut from the photo sheet of the 36-year-old Edith. One of these is in the photo album that Anne compiled when they were in hiding.
Evening along the Sloterplas, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1964. Photographed by Leonard Freed.
Medical shop, Netherlands, 1964. Photographed by Leonard Freed.
Winter kiss under the street light, Amsterdam, 1950s. Photographed by Kees Scherer.
Belgian refugees of the 1st world war at dinner in one the many refugee camps spread across the Netherlands. Amsterdam, 1914.
Graves of a Catholic woman and her Protestant husband, who were not allowed to be buried together. Het Oude Kerkhof, Roermond, the Netherlands, 1888
Winter scene in Amsterdam, 1964.