The first record of a bagel is in Krakow, Poland in 1610. A document issued by the Jewish elders of Krakow, with instructions on various aspects of Jewish life, included the recommendation to give “beygls” to women after childbirth. It was part of a section on how to properly celebrate the birth of a boy.
Historic picture shows the different expressions of six polish civilians moments before death by firing squad, 1939.
This group of men show a wide range of emotions: the first from the left looks anguished, the next one looks defiant, the last one looks resigned… but the man third from the left is smiling at his executioners. He knows he is sure to die as others had been executed before him, but he faces his end with a smile.
On September 3, 1939, two days after the start of the German invasion of Poland, a series of killings occurred in and around the Polish town of Bydgoszcz (German: Bromberg), where a sizable German minority lived. These killings were termed ‘Bloody Sunday’.
The Nazis exploited the deaths as grounds for a massacre of Polish inhabitants after the Wehrmacht captured the town. In an act of retaliation for the killings on Bloody Sunday, a number of Polish civilians were executed by German military units of the Einsatzgruppen, Waffen SS, and Wehrmacht.
Approximately 4,500 years ago, the dismembered remains of a Neolithic man and small child were buried together, in southeastern Poland. With them was buried a complete bear’s paw. It is quite unusual, as domesticated animals were the usual Neolithic burial companions in this part of Europe.
Traces of fire and a single cattle bone have also been found at the entrance to the burial niche, where the bear’s paw was uncovered. The artifacts in combination have led archaeologists to suggest that the bear’s paw was used for some sort of ritual at the burial’s entrance.
Secretly photographing the Holocaust: Rare photos taken by a Jewish photographer that show daily life in the Lodz ghetto.
44 fascinating pics that document everyday life of Poland in 1970.
SS, Wehrmacht and Soviet soldiers meet at the town of Brest in Poland September 1939
Poles sentenced to death without trial face the firing squad in Nazi-occupied Poland, 1939
During World War II, partisan groups arose in the forests of eastern Europe. Often small bands, they were desperate people who hoped that by retreating to the forests and keeping their numbers small, they could survive Nazi occupation and potentially use guerrilla warfare to help weaken the Nazis in their area. Most were not Jewish. Most were locals who wanted to resist the occupation of their homelands.
Some number of the groups were Jewish, however. There were many reasons separate Jewish partisan groups arose, but one notable reason was antisemitism. Jews in non-Jewish partisan groups often hid their religion for fear of their countrymen turning on them.
Norman Salsitz, for example, used seven non-Jewish identities while fighting the Nazis in two partisan groups. At the second and larger one, the AK Polish Underground, a command was given to seek out and kill Jews being hidden on a farm. The AK Polish Underground took time from fighting Nazis to kill Jews hiding from the Nazis. Let that sink in. Norman Salsitz volunteered for the mission, killing the Poles who had been sent with him and rescuing the Jews in hiding. He then returned to his first partisan group, which was smaller and less effective, but which did not ask him to murder Jews.