And that was hard – like “k” in English today. So Caesar? Should be pronounced “kaeser.” Hence the modern descendents “tzar” and “kaiser.”
Interestingly, the Roman pronunciation was maintained in English in the name “Octavian” and “Cleopatra.” Try saying them out loud!
Did you know that Julius Caesar holds the record for most Roman triumphs at four? Almost exactly 15 years earlier, Pompey the Great had held his then-unprecedented third triumph. Caesar surpassed Pompey’s record in opulent style – he held all four triumphs in one four-day span!
“Succession of the Plebians” was a common form of revolt in the early Roman Republic. Everyone except the hereditary aristocrats (called patricians) would leave the city. The patricians would be left to fend for themselves. No servants, no shopkeepers, no farmers.
It was a very effective way to make the patricians negotiate.
A man who beat his wife or child laid violent hands, Cato the Elder said, on what was most sacred. A good husband he believed to be more worthy of more praise than a great senator. He admired the ancient Socrates “for nothing so much as for having lived a temperate and contented life with a wife who was a scold, and children who were half-witted.”
A lot of Romans simply didn’t believe lesbians existed. The poet Ovid called lesbianism “a desire known to no one,” musing that, “among all animals, no female is seized by desire for female.”
Specifically, two millennia – in the first century BCE, Romans were already debating whether wealth and virtue could coexist. Philosophers, of course, had been discussing it for far longer. But in the late Roman Republic, as the divide between rich and poor became wider, the issue became one of public debate. And the divide only got worse when the Republic fell to the new Empire.
This one goes to the Romans! They had “Acta Diurna” (Daily Events) which was a handwritten news report, posted in multiple public places for the public to read. It first appeared in 131 BCE during the Republic. Although initially only the outcomes of trials, the Acta Diurna eventually expanded to public notices and announcements like important births or senatorial decrees.
Men are eager to tread underfoot what they have once too much feared.